Max Weber has given three characteristics of bureaucracy: i The regular activities are distributed in a fixed way as official duties; ii The authority to give the commands required for the incharge of these duties is distributed in a stable way and is strictly delimited by rules; iii Methodical provision is made for the regular and continuous fulfillment of these duties. We often think of bureaucrats as paper-pushing desk clerks, but bureaucrats fight fires, teach, and monitor how federal candidates raise money, among other activities. It bureaucracy acts as a power bloc. At the very most, there was a mountain of documented evidence that the car should not be built as it was then designed. Educated in law, history, philosophy and economics, he became one of the founders of the modern science of sociology — the study of society and its institutions. He said that centralised bureaucratic administration was an integral part of modern state structure and it is inevitable.
During the 1960s, big businesses were inefficient and unfair in their hiring practices. Administrator requires experience, efficiency and technical knowledge. By doing so, they would be cut off from a part of themselves, they would become alienated. By enforcing strict rules, the organisation can more easily achieve uniformity and all employee efforts can be better coordinated. Naturally, the members of the legislature can call for explanation from the ministers and the latter, in turn, demand explanation from the officials. Again, the rationalization process is the increasing dominance of zweckrational action over rational action based on values, or actions motivated by traditions and emotions.
Like Weber, Marx did not develop a well-knit theory of bureaucracy, but he was quite aware of its existence and importance in capitalist country. There is blind attachment to rules which in some cases are outdated and old. Official views are free from any personal involvement, emotions and feelings. The entire administration of state is under the control of bureaucracy. This is an excellent example of bureaucratic ritualism. Before the advent of capitalism this gargantuan administrative structure did not have any existence.
Examples of everyday bureaucracies include , , , , , and. From this approach the term committed bureaucracy has been coined. Task specialisation Tasks are divided into simple, routine categories on the basis of competencies and functional specialisations. Again, the failure to implement a policy or to take necessary action for implementation will create a lot of suspicion about the efficiency of the officials concerned. Now the capitalists own the tools machinery, desks, computers and assign each worker only a single step or two in the entire production process. Another meaning is to assist ministers or other top executives in the management of the general affairs of the state. Robson has summarised the defects of bureaucracy in these words.
Jurisdiction of everyone is clearly defined and the person in charge of the duty must accept the responsibility. Marx termed these reactions alienation, a result, he said, of workers being cut off from the finished product of their labor. Control of Bureaucracy : Need to Control Bureaucracy : Though Weber called bureaucracy as an inevitability and an integral part of state administration and though its seminal role in administration is recognised by many or almost all, the term bureaucracy is pejoratively used by many and these men are not ordinary people. The citizen is incapable to find the person whom he can pin down for a decision. The tasks are -so demarcated that it involves fall time employment. Increasingly, human behavior is guided by observation, experiment and reason zweckrational to master the natural and social environment to achieve a desired end.
For the purpose of recruitment, qualifications are fixed; of course there may be provision for relaxation. Patterns of Privilege and Exclusion By the end of the twentieth century, white men in the United States still held 63 percent of management jobs. The offices were few in number. The modern civil servant is a highly specialized person. Complexities in modern administration and economic organisation have no doubt made the bureaucracy indispensable. But the citizens can seek the intervention of judiciary for any wrong done by the officials and the judiciary does it. Each lower office is under the control and supervision of a higher one.
Essentially, it handles the paperwork of everyday government operations. If a policy remains unimplemented the ministers have the right to call for explanation from the officials who were in the charge of implementation. The decision is actually taken by the officials and the ministers approve it. But there is no doubt that it is far better than the traditional or charismatic authority. Weber called this formal rationalization as opposed to substantive rationality the ability to anchor actions in the consideration of the whole.
Organizations in the public and private sector, including universities and governments, rely on bureaucracies to function. The definition given by Hague, Harrop and Breslin appears to be more relevant. The number of civil servants has increased manifold. This can also be when who you know is more valuable then what you know. The rules and requirements are more or less stable and always formalised in so-called official reports.
In a number of countries the system of ombudsman has been introduced though in different names. Bees have specific jobs, too, collecting pollen, making honey, or populating the hive. Farben was one of the first great corporate conglomerates. The bureaucrats make adjustments between new and old policies, and amend the old ones to suit the needs of the new government. If the mission is to serve the organization itself, and those within it, e. If it is not timely controlled the salutary effects will be eclipsed by its shortcomings which we have briefly stated.