Rensis Likert Theory of Motivation Rensis Likert was an American educator and organizational psychologist who was best known for his research on management styles About. On Cleverism, you reach more than 4m high-performance active and passive job seekers a year. Its management had great responsibilities but virtually none in the lower levels, where there was hardly any communication and no harmonious and productive team work. Since there are no other voices, the organization can start experiencing the so-called tunnel vision. This leads to the problem of being reliant on the expertise and knowledge of the leader. But in certain situations, it might be valuable to encourage discussion privately with the leader as well. The management theory of Rensis Likert brought a new dimension to organizational development theory.
Likert developed four models of management which he termed systems of management. The underlying distinction in the behavioural style approach is between two different styles of leadership: task-orientation where the leader is concerned with task-related actitivies, such as allocating tasks and setting deadlines ; and, relationship-orientation where the leader is concerned with the subordinates, such as being friendly and approachable, developing communication and encouraging participation. Short-term participation Organizations could also implement short-term participation strategies. He is able to understand what they want, how to get there, and then help the right people to execute the plan. This promotes a more positive effect on employee relationships and allows for more cooperation. How to behave as participative leader Apart from the above characteristics, there are certain actions you should focus on as a participative leader. For instance, certain information might need to be withheld from subordinates in order to protect organizational security.
The idea is that the threat of punishment will help limit actual failures and motivates subordinates to work hard. Again, consultative participation is identified as a formal and long-term objective of an organization. A bit similar to charismatic leadership, authoritarian leaders must be able to clearly communicate the vision to subordinates. Together with his colleagues, Lewin there to be three different leadership styles: democratic, autocratic, and laissez-faire. Therefore, you might be able to reach much more creative solutions.
He was a founder of the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research and its director from its founding in 19946 till 1970. System 1 - Exploitative Authoritative This is the classic top-down management style where decision making is vested in the few at the top of the hierarchy. In the authoritarian model, results matter and if someone is not performing, then the consequences must always be the same no matter the circumstances. But they are also driven by the fear of punishment. Likert argues that the participative system is the most effective form of management within the systems. Confident The authoritarian leader will be at the centre of operations, holding the strings to ensure everything within the organization goes smoothly.
The leader has to be the most knowledgeable person in the organization and be able to reinvent himself, as well as the vision for the organization. As a leader, it is your role to establish the structures and communicate these clearly to your subordinates. Therefore, high-risk industries, like construction, tend to favor the authoritarian style. Facilitating conversations Under the framework, the leader is the person starting the conversation around a specific decision. The lack of communication between the conflicting parties asserted a profound impression on Rensis and led him to study organizations and their behavior for the rest of his life. An organization often has the so-called middle managers, who act as messengers between the higher ranked leader and the employees. If you consider the list of comedians, whose careers Michaels has helped kick off, you can see his vision is perfectly in tune with the American audience.
Likert found that many organizations are operating under Systems 2 and 3. Since the subordinates are not included in the processes, they can start feeling voiceless members of the organization. By setting up the procedures, removing the uncertainty of decisions, and enforcing strict supervision, the aim is to drive up productivity and organizational efficiency. For the style to work, each member of the team has to be aware of the responsibilities they have and the objectives they are supposed to achieve. Gender differences in leadership style A common perception is that female managers tend to have a more participative style of leadership, whilst men tend to be more autocratic. For example, where a decision needs to be made quickly, the participative style, which involves extensive consultation, may be too time-consuming.
If your subordinates are more knowledgeable, then the organization will run into trouble, as there are no structures available for shared decision making. The subordinates who exceed their targets are rewarded but are harsh to those who do not perform well. Later, he and Jane G. But there is a bit more trust in the subordinates, with the motivation stemming from rewards rather than punishment. A participative leadership system can include more than one of the below dimension or it can be based on a single system. For example, the leader might set rules and procedures ready for regular team meetings where different issues are discussed.
However, you are welcome to browse our article and expert advice pages for small business best practices and challenges without signing up. The subordinates are only included in decisions regarding the work. The superiors and subordinates repose a substantial degree of confidence and trust between each other. These variables were studied in various management models. They significantly, but do not fully trust the other members of the group, so many specific decisions are made by ordinary members of the group, the leader makes significant decisions solely. Non-verbal communication can help other people find you more approachable and better at getting your message across. Here, the subordinates are not involved in the decision-making process.