The Chinese Exclusion Act was amended and tightened in legislation enacted in 1884, 1888, 1892, and 1902. Though the government had no role in it, the protests were unofficially allowed to continue. Furthermore, as with most immigrant communities, many Chinese settled in their own neighborhoods, and tales spread of Chinatowns as places where large numbers of Chinese men congregated to visit prostitutes, smoke opium, or gamble. These financial pressures left them little choice but to work for whatever wages they could. The domestic factors ultimately trumped international concerns. Historyplex tells you what was the purpose of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, along with several facts about its background, causes, effects, and significance. Arthur with the approval of Congress.
Rumors spread that areas with significant Chinese populations had turned into dens of prostitution, gambling, and opium abuse, thus threatening American culture. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003. Therefore, Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That from and after the expiration of ninety days next after the passage of this act, and until the expiration of ten years next after the passage of this act, the coming of Chinese laborers to the United States be, and the same is hereby, suspended; and during such suspension it shall not be lawful for any Chinese laborer to come, or, having so come after the expiration of said ninety days, to remain within the United States. They are wipped curs, abject in docility, mean, contemptible and obedient in all things. Why, the Chinaman is in her place too! The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, the first major ethnic group immigration exclusion policy in the U. On April 18, 1906, an earthquake and ensuing fire in San Francisco destroyed all citizenship records stored in City Hall.
The eight-dollar head tax was a significant levy on impoverished immigrants. Modern United States is a pluralistic society, composed of people from different ethnic origins. Coolies and Cane: Race, Labor, and Sugar in the Age of Emancipation. As the West Coast agitators push Chinese Exclusion onto the agenda of Congress, the State Department would also have to re-negotiate the existing treaty, which was very difficult but nonetheless successful. Americans passed the Chinese Exclusion Act because they felt that exclusion was the only protection for the Chinese.
The Chinese Exclusion Act was passed because the ignorant and judgmental Americans hated to see someone else do what they did with better ethics and spirits, therefore their aggressive acts resulted in racial exclusion. Workers arriving from China provided the main labor force for this railroad, which connected distant parts of the vast country, besides making communication faster. Highlights the creation of the Asiatic Barred Zone as a milestone in restricting Asian immigration. The lack of political representation and voice, combined with growing anti-Chinese sentiment, served as a precondition for the passage of the Page Law in 1875. California must be all American or all Chinese. The Chinese were also underestimated and seen as uneducated.
In the year 1882, the U. Congress, which was constitutionally empowered to exercise exclusive jurisdiction over immigration, continued to increase restrictions through the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Heavy penalties and fines were imposed on any persons who seemingly assisted immigration in violation of the law. In the 1860s, authorities from the Central Pacific Railroad began hiring laborers to work on the Transcontinental Railroad Project. Hayes vetoed the bill because it violated U. The Act was finally signed by the president on May 6, 1882, with the period of prohibition decreased to ten years.
It also was the first in a series of legislative, executive, and judicial acts by the U. Though the movement was not sanctioned by the Chinese government, it received unofficial support in the early months. If you're wondering why the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 was passed, then your search ends right here! Americans denied Chinese citizenship and lives in the United States is mere fear of their virtues which were mistaken as vices. Anyone found without such a certificates could be deported or sentenced to a year of hard labor. In order to placate the western states without offending China, President Hayes sought a revision of the Burlingame-Seward Treaty in which China agreed to limit immigration to the United States. Moreover, some thought that the Chinese had been sending large quantities of gold found in the mines back home, which was affecting the American economy. A large part of these immigrants were Chinese, who faced abject poverty back home owing to a civil war.
The Immigration Act of 1917 also barred most immigration from Asia. In 1892, Congress voted to renew exclusion for ten years in the Geary Act, and in 1902, the prohibition was expanded to cover Hawaii and the Philippines, all over strong objections from the Chinese Government and people. It was followed by the Geary Act of 1892 which extended the provisions of the Exclusion Act for another ten years. Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines, Cuban leasing rights, were all obtained from Spain via the Spanish-American War of 1898. Unfortunately, as increasing numbers of Japanese arrived in the U.
Tensions rose between the two groups once the railroad was finished in 1869. Therefore many of the non-Chinese workers in the United States came to resent the Chinese laborers, who might squeeze them out of their jobs. Despite the willingness of entrepreneurs to hire Chinese laborers, anti-Chinese sentiment grew in reaction to the prevalence of beliefs that the immigrant workers were a dual threat to white labor and the purity of the white race. General history of immigration restrictions. Chinese immigrants who were not laborers by trade had to receive certification from the Chinese government. Artist, Thomas Nast portrays that not only is America trying to stop the anti-Chinese violence, but that the only way the Chinese can protected and safe is separated from the people of America. After decades of massive immigration into the U.
The railroad would've took alot longer to build, as only the Chinese men were willing to blast thru the granite mountains going thru Donner Pass in the Sierra Mountains. This act suspended immigration of Chinese laborers and prohibited naturalization of those Chinese already residing in the United States. Built the transcontinental railroad, linking up with the predominently built Irish railroad in Promontory Utah in 1869. This finally resulted in legislation that aimed to limit future immigration of Chinese workers to the United States, and threatened to sour diplomatic relations between the United States and China. Penalties were imposed on any persons or corporations who encouraged or assisted the immigration of persons barred by the act or contract laborers. President Wilson vetoed the law, but Congress overrode his veto and the act went into effect on May 1, 1917. The Chinese Exclusion Act was followed by official U.
Arthur vetoed this bill, saying that it was too harsh. Government in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries setting official immigration policies that many historians, scholars, and average citizens consider as racist. Japan was targeted, in particular, by sugar plantation owners in Hawai'i as the next best potential source of labor. Immigrants have traditionally been drawn to this country by its reputation as the 'land of opportunities', and, in turn, they have helped shape its society in their own way, without which it wouldn't be the superpower it is today. However, congressional provisions to add a literacy requirement to the immigration laws were vetoed by Presidents Grover Cleveland in 1896, William Howard Taft in 1913, and Woodrow Wilson in 1915. We seek our ends calmly, rationally, at the ballot box.